Muallif(lar): S.B.Abduraxmanova
Nashr ma`lumotlari:// “Agrar sohani barqaror rivojlantirishda fan, ta’lim va ishlab chiqarish integratsiyasi” mavzusidagi professor-o‘qituvchi va yosh olimlarning I ilmiy-amaliy konferentsiyasi materiallari to‘plami. Toshkent, 2017 yil, 30-31 may.
To‘plamni yuklash uchun havola:


“Foreign languages” department, TSAU

The current article highlights hot to write scientific papers and articles, informs the content, components of article. Before we write a scientific article we have to follow its rules, style or format, thinking about its audience and publishing.
Key words: paper and article, research, title, summary, abstract, method, material, result, discussion, conclusion, references.
Introduction: When you have decided that you should be writing a paper, and that you have a paper to write, you must then start thinking about your audience. From the very start, you should aim at getting the paper seen by the right audience. To do this, you should direct your paper at a specific journal or newspaper that is read by the people you want to contact. Before you start planning your article, you need to decide in which journal or newspaper you want to publish. The choice of journal or newspaper will influence the format and style of your article, and how you prepare it.
Materials and methods: This classical structure does not fit some disciplines, but it is a useful and systematic way in which to approach your writing.
The pattern of a research article.
Most types of research article follow a classical pattern, answering a logical series of questions:
Introduction-   what led to the work and what are the objectives?
Materials- what was used?
Methods  -  what was done?
Results   - what happened?
Discussion-  what does it mean?
Conclusions -what are the implications of the results?
Acknowledgements-  who helped?
References-  who is referred to in the text?
It is extremely important to write a good title for a paper. The title attracts the interest of the reader and it is used in bibliographic information services, so it needs to be accurate and informative. The object is to include as much information as you can in as few words as possible. Put the most important part of your work at the start of title, where it will be easiest for the reader scanning a list to see.You can write your title as one statement, or use the main/subtitle format.
Abstracts (summary, annotation)
An abstract represents the contents of the article in short form. There are three types of abstract: informative, indicative and structured. There is often confusion about the words ‘Abstract’ and ‘Summary’. A summary restates the main findings and conclusions of a paper, and is written for people who have already read the paper. An abstract is an abbreviated version of the paper, written for people who may never read the complete version. So a summary is not the same as an abstract, although some journals call the abstracts of the articles they publish ‘summaries’.
Materials and Methods
Here the questions are “What did you use?” and “What did you do?” you only describe the materials you used, and the methods you used in the work.
You do not need to interpret anything. However, you must make sure you have described everything in sufficient detail so that another scientist could repeat your experiment after reading the description.Justify your choice of one method or treatment over the others available. State the assumptions that you have made. This will allow your readers to understand the purpose of the methods you are about to describe. Follow a logical order; this section
falls naturally into two sections: the Materials first, then the Methods.
Materials:Describe all the materials – chemicals, animals, plants, equipment, etc. – that you used. Identify chemical compounds (fertilisers, etc.) so that other workers will be able to obtain the same materials. If you use trade names, you should include the full chemical name or active ingredient the first time you mention it. Some journals ask
you to give the name and address of the supplier or manufacturer of the material.Use internationally recognised standards for naming materials, and also use metric units, standard nomenclature, etc. Give the full genus, species, race, strain, cultivar or line of any experimental plants, animals or microorganisms you used. Species names can be abbreviated once they have been fully described. Check the journal’s Instructions to Authors for correct usage and terminology.
Methods:  You should answer the questions “What did you do?” and “How did you do it?”. Describe your experiments in a logical order. If you have used well known methods, just give their names and a reference, but if you made any changes, these should be explained. The readers of the paper will be scientists themselves, so you do not need to describe familiar things in detail. Be brief, but do not leave out important information such as sizes or volumes. Describe the statistical techniques you used, but do not go into detail. Most tests are well known and do not need much description. If a technique is not so well known, then you can give a reference. Only if the method is new or original should you describe it in detail.
In the Results, you describe what happened in your experiments. You can present your results making no comment on them, giving your own interpretations later in the Discussion section. Another approach is to interpret the results up to a point, to make some connections between the different statements, but to give more detail in a separate Discussion section. A third way is to combine the results with a discussion of each point. Whichever way you choose, you should present the results in a sequence that corresponds to your original objectives. Report any negative results that will influence your interpretation later on. Present all the relevant results in this section so that you do not need to introduce new material in the Discussion. Remember your original purpose. In an experimental paper, your objectives tell you what you should be writing about. Results that do not relate to them should not be mentioned.
Figures and tables
Write in relation to tables and figures that you have already prepared. There is no need to repeat boring lists of statistics in the text when they are already in the tables or figures. Describe the overall results, not each individual value.
In the Discussion, you must answer the questions: “What do my results mean?”, “Why did this happen?” and “What are the implications?”. This is the most thoughtful and demanding section of the paper, but also the most important. You must interpret your results for the readers so that they can understand the meaning of your findings. You need to distinguish among a mass of information and select that which is most relevant to your argument. Use a series of findings or statements to come to a clear conclusion. This conclusion must match your originally stated objective.
References used:
  1. Anthony Y., Paul S., Rodger O. “Scientific writing for agricultural research scientists”. A training resource manual. Wageningen, the Netherlands. CTA. 2012.
  2. http://abacus.bates.edu/̴ ganderso/biology/resources/writing
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